Soil that is contaminated contains substances that are actually or potentially hazardous to health or the environment. Current or previous industrial production can lead to land becoming contaminated by human activities such as mining, industry, chemical and oil spills and waste disposal. Contamination can also occur naturally as result of the geology of the area, or through agricultural use.
Contaminated sediment in water bodies has emerged as a major ecological and human health issue and can be associated with acute and chronic effects on aquatic life. Sediments also constitute a major source of persistent bio-accumulative toxic chemicals which may pose threats to ecological and human health even after the pollutants cease to be released.
This section is divided into the following sub-sections;